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Advanced Radar Cross Section Signature Reduction Short Course

s-curve_an3.gif (170107 bytes)by Marietta Scientific, Inc.





Course Description:

bulletMarietta Scientific is offering an Advanced Radar Cross Section Reduction short course for new and experienced RCS engineers.  The course emphasizes the importance of physical understanding of scattering mechanisms through the use of electromagnetic theory, analytical and measurement diagnostics. Several successful prediction codes are reviewed. With base understanding, several methods are studied in-depth to aid the engineer in understanding what causes scattering and how it can be managed. Two methodologies are discussed to aid in prediction and design of high performance scattering geometries. Length and wavelength are tightly connected to give physical meaning for the transitioning of energy. Additionally, an in-depth review of far field imaging theory will be discussed to establish the fundamentals of imaging in measurements and prediction codes.

Course Lecturers:

bulletJohn F. Shaeffer of Marietta Scientific, Inc. has over fifteen years experience in low observable technologies and over thirty years in electromagnetics. John is the primary lecturer of RCSR short course by Marietta Scientific, Inc. and Georgia Tech Research Institute. He is a co-author of RADAR CROSS-SECTION.
bulletBrett A. Cooper of Marietta Scientific, Inc. has over thirteen years experience in hardware and software radar design and design of high performance RCS systems. Brett has developed several short course lectures, which has been given thought industry for several years.

Course Availability:

bulletThe Advanced Radar Cross Section short course is available to any United States organization. The course attendance can vary with a typical load of less than 40 attendees being optimal. Contact John Shaeffer or Brett Cooper for more details.


Course Outline:

Day One

Day Two

Day Three

Introduction Fresnel Scattering Design Topics
EM Theory RCS (back of the envelope) Solutions Scaling Issues
Scattering Phenomena Aperture Theory Fixture Design
EM Prediction Codes & Their Uses Geometrical Shaping Radar Imaging Theory
Analytical Diagnostics Planform Shaping Bistatic K-Space Imaging Theory
Advanced Codes Shaping / Material Synthesis bistatic K-Space Imaging II


Day One:


Introduction – Radar Cross Section Reduction methodology and phenomenology will be reviewed. This overview will discuss the approaches to be examined in the forthcoming lectures. A general methodology will be reviewed on how to better understand complex scattering bodies. Scattering phenomena, though better understanding of the physical mechanisms will be discussed. Along with becoming a "Phenomenologist" the concepts and methods of energy management will be discussed to achieve RCSR. Other topics will include an overview of typical threats sectors.


EM Theory – Electromagnetic theory as it applies to scattering bodies will be reviewed. This lecture will prepare the attendee with a better physical feel for the underlying theory and the practical applications of the theory. Topics include Maxwell’s equations; EM wave characteristics; boundary conditions; and near & far field scattering.


Scattering Phenomena – Electromagnetic scattering mechanisms will be reviewed. Emphasis will be on the physical understanding of how scattering occurs. This will enable the attendee to identify scattering phenomena on more complex scattering bodies. Simple geometries will first be used to demonstrate scattering phenomena. Then, progressively more complex bodies will be used to illustrate how to decompose these complex bodies into their simpler form. Included are: specular; side lobes; diffraction; traveling waves (surface, creeping and edge); and multiple bounce. Several illustrations and animations will be used to enhance the physical understanding of each phenomenon.


EM Prediction Codes & Their Uses – An in-depth discussion of the several types of EM modeling codes that are available throughout industry will be reviewed. Each prediction code will be discussed the general approximations used in their formulation. A better link between scattering phenomena and what type of codes will predict them will be among the major topics. Additional topics include: modeling issues such as rendering and tessellation; solution fidelity; several code implementations (including GO; PO; GTD; PTD; MOM; and FTD); resources needed; and utilization of codes (what code when).


Analytical Diagnostics –The utilization of several types of analytical diagnostic tools will be discussed to demonstrate the power in interrogating their results for more information. Discussed will be the different ways that useful information can be ascertained from commonly used codes to help in quickly understanding complex scattering solutions with limited resources. The attendee will be shown the utility of such exploits to help in an overall better understanding of the problem along with an accelerated design process. Topics include: near & far field mapping; current and power flow mapping; Imaging; optimization techniques; and an introduction to the utilization of these tools for design.


Advanced Codes – A present look at the state of the art in code implementations and packages will be discussed. Topics will include FTD codes; MOM codes; hybrid mom codes; and fast iterative solver solutions.


Day Two:

bulletFresnel Scattering – An in-depth study of specular and non-specular scattering concepts will be conducted to lay the foundation for high performance scattering control. Fresnel scattering (stationary phase) will be reviewed to understand its significance in prediction utilization of why scattering bodies scatter the way they do. A better physical understanding of how energy scatters to the far field will result. Topics include: far field integral review; specular scattering; curved surface scattering; edge scattering.
bulletRCS (back of the envelope) Solutions- Discussed will be the utilization of several scattering concepts to derive approximate solutions for complex scatters. In demonstrating these derivations, the attendee will gain a better understanding of what controls scattering energy to the far field. Physical optics and diffraction scattering along with the concept of stationary phase will be utilized to derive several useful back of the envelope formulas.
bulletAperture Theory – Signal-processing theory as it applies to scattering bodies for advanced side lobe envelope control will be discussed. An outline of aperture theory will be presented to set the foundation for understanding how side lobe scattering is controlled. Implementation of standard signal processing windowing techniques for high performance side-lobe control will be introduced. Other topics included are the concepts of energy scattering envelopes for off specular scattering; the relationship between aperture length and wavelength (l/l); the implementation of performance windowing; and trade off analysis.
bulletGeometrical Shaping - Geometrical shaping using aperture theory will be discussed in-depth. The implementation of signal-processing windowing to synthesize high performance geometrical shapes will include: faceting; S-curve design; blended aperture tapering (BAT); body of revolution aperture tapering (BORAT); serration designing; and several other examples which will provide the necessary methodology to design high performance geometries by controlling side lobe scattering.
bulletPlanform Shaping – Planform designing using aperture theory will be introduced. An in-depth discussion of how to optimally draw planforms given threat sectors. Line lengths and the number of lines along with curved edge planform lines will be reviewed. In addition, line-stacking and serrations, limited material treatment and traveling wave attenuation will be discussed.
bulletShaping / Material Synthesis – Introduction to shaping and material synthesis using aperture theory for high performance scattering. The combination of attenuating materials with geometrical shaping to produce high performance scattering bodies will be reviewed. Other topics include: resistive card tapering synthesis; balancing geometrical and material implementations; and aperture analysis techniques to evaluate material shaped geometries.


Day Three:

bulletDesign Topics – A review of the design process for several DOD systems will be examined. Existing DOD systems like the F-117, Sea Shadow and the Darkstar will be reviewed.
bulletScaling Issues – An in-depth review of scaling issues for frequency and/or size. The theory and problems of scaling will be discussed with an emphasis on sub-scale modeling. Other topics include: geometry considerations such as smoothness and gaps and cracks; material scaling and difficulties.
bulletFixture design – The implementation of the design techniques reviewed above will be used to design commonly used RCS range fixtures. Planform shaping and high performance shaping will be demonstrated in the design. Several predictions along with the approximations will be reviewed.
bulletRadar Imaging Theory – Far field imaging theory will be discussed in-depth. A physical understanding of how imaging works and the parameters that affect images will be reviewed. Topics included: SAR and ISAR imaging processing; noise effects; processing gain; imaging units; focusing techniques for typical ISAR data acquisition; and high resolution imaging.
bulletBistatic K-Space Imaging Theory – New imaging theory for prediction codes will be discussed in detail. K-space bistatic imaging theory will be introduced. The implementations for several EM prediction codes will be reviewed. Additional topics include K-space bandwidth; geometrical sampling and the significance of only needing one frequency to obtain an image.
bulletBistatic K-Space Imaging II – K-space imaging results will be examined in detail to quantify the differences and advantages of this new imaging technique from traditional experimental imaging theory. Limitations and advantages will be discussed with several examples to illustrate this technique.